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SCS Citation Assistance

Style Guides: Chicago Style 17th Edition


Citing Census Data

From the Census Bureau FAQ

When creating Dynamically generated tables, maps, and files from always include:

  1. U.S. Census Bureau as the author
  2. Name of the database or other data repository/source (e.g.,, set off by quotation marks, or follow publication citation style;
  3. The name of the person who generates the tabulation, etc., e.g., "generated by John Smith;"
  4. The name of the software package used to generate the tabulation, if known, e.g., "using;"
  5. The URL of the application software's main or first page set off by angle brackets, e.g., <>;
  6. The date, within parenthesis, when the user generated the tabulation, e.g., (8 April 2020).


U.S. Census Bureau; American Community Survey, 2018 American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates, Table B01003; generated by John Smith; using; <> (8 April 2020).

U.S. Census Bureau; Economic Annual Surveys, Table CB1700CBP; generated by Jane Jones; using; <> (1 April 2020).

Citing Social Explorer

When using Social Explorer to generate maps or data tables use the following format examples:

Map Format

Title of map, dates. Social Explorer, permalink URL (based on data from <identify data source>; date accessed).

Format Example:

Population Density, 1960. Social Explorer, (based on data from U.S. Census Bureau; accessed Jul 27 17:16:03 EST 2010).

Report Format

Data source. Title of table, dates. Prepared by Social Explorer. permalink URL (date accessed).

Format Example:

U.S. Census Bureau. Population Density, 1960. Prepared by Social Explorer. (accessed Jul 27 13:58:03 EST 2010).

All examples are from Social Explorer's "How do I cite information on Social Explorer" FAQ

Citing Maps

From Chicago Manual of Style 17th Edition - 14.237 Citing Maps


1. Samuel de Champlain, cartographer, Carte geographique de la Nouvelle Franse, 1612, 43 × 76 cm, in The History of Cartography, vol. 3, Cartography in the European Renaissance (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2007), fig. 51.3.

2. Satellite view of Chicago, Google Earth, accessed April 2, 2016,,-87.723154


For more guidance on citing maps, including how to cite GIS produced maps, see NC State Library's Citing Maps Guide

Specific Examples

Common Citation Examples: 

In-Direct Sources:

Because authors are generally expected to be intimately familiar with the sources they are citing, Chicago discourages the use of a source that was cited within another (secondary) source. In the case that an original source is utterly unavailable, however, Chicago recommends the use of "quoted in" for the note:


7. Ian Hacking, The Social Construction of What? (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1999), 103, quoted in Manuel DeLanda, A New Philosophy of Society (New York: Continuum, 2006), 2.

IBIS World Reports:

N: 1 Nick Petrillo, “IBISWorld Industry Report 31212CA: Breweries in United States – May 2015,” 18-21, accessed July 12, 2015, IBISWorld.

B: Petrillo, Nick. “IBISWorld Industry Report 31212CA: Breweries in United States – May 2015.” Accessed October 14, 2015. IBISWorld.

Mintel Reports:

N: 1 Bryant Harland, “Mobile Apps – US – October 2014.” Mintel.  Accessed October 17, 2015, Mintel.

B: Harland, Bryant. “Mobile Apps – US – October 2014.” Mintel.  Accessed October 17, 2015, Mintel.

Simmons OneView Survey Data:

N: 1 Experian Simmons, “Fall 2012 National Household Consumer Survey Adult Study 6 Month.” Accessed October 14, 2015. Simmons OneView.

B: Experian Simmons, “Fall 2012 National Household Consumer Survey Adult Study 6 Month.” Accessed October 14, 2015. Simmons OneView.

Personal Communications:

N: Constance Conlon, e-mail message to author, April 17, 2016.

BReferences to conversations (whether face-to-face or by telephone) or to letters, e-mail or text messages, and the like received by the author are usually run in to the text or given in a note. They are rarely listed in a bibliography.

Citing Information Generated by ChatGPT/AI

Ask your program about their guidelines for incorporating information generated by ChatGPT and other AI in your papers. When permissible to use that information directly, use the suggestions below.

To cite the informational product generated by ChatGPT or other AI, the recommendation is for the Methodology and/or Introduction of your paper to specify the following:  

  • The prompt you used when utilizing ChatGPT; and 
  • The text that the chatbot produced in response. If the response from ChatGPT is lengthy, please include it in the form of an Appendix. 


Please remember that if AI connects you to another resource, you need to cite that resource, just as you would in a literature review. 

As for the in-text citation and the Bibliography item that will follow this description, apply The Chicago Manual of Style’s response for citing ChatGPT and AI. 

Note example: 
1. Text generated by ChatGPT, May 24, 2023, OpenAI. 
Bibliography example
OpenAI. Text generated by ChatGPT, Version GPT-3.5. Accessed May 24, 2023. 


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