This tutorial offers basic guidelines for writing and formatting papers in APA Style (7th edition), including how to ethically incorporate outside sources through in-text citations and reference list entries.
In October 2019, the American Psychological Association published its 7th edition of the APA Publication Manual, which replaced the 6th edition from 2009. To learn about the major changes in the APA guidelines, please consult this video tutorial.
This tutorial discusses noteworthy differences between the 6th (2009) and 7th edition (2019) of the APA Style Manual, as these relate to formatting as well as to preferred language choices.
IBIS World Database
In text: (Haider, 2015)
Haider, Z. (2015). IBISWorld Industry Report 52211. Commercial Banking in the US. https://www.ibisworld.com
In text: (Spencer, 2015)
Spencer, D. (2015). Outdoor enthusiasts - US. https://mintel.com
In text: (Nielsen, n.d.)
Nielsen. (n.d.). Sports events with the biggest Twitter TV audiences in the United States in 2014. https://statista.com
In text: (MRI-Simmons, 2019)
MRI-Simmons. (2019). National Consumer Study [CONCISELY DESCRIBE VARIABLE ONE AND VARIABLE TWO]. https://mrisimmons.com
In text: (U.S. Census Bureau, 2016)
U.S. Census Bureau. (2016). American Community Survey, [CONCISELY DESCRIBE VARIABLES]. https://socialexplorer.com
No personal communication is included in your reference list; instead, parenthetically cite the communicator's name, the phrase "personal communication," and the date of the communication in your main text only.
In text: (E. Robbins, personal communication, January 4, 2001).
A. P. Smith also claimed that many of her students had difficulties with APA style (personal communication, November 3, 2002).
When you have two or more sources written by the same author (individual or corporate) and published in the same year, use lowercase letters after the year so that your reader can distinguish which source is which.
Koriat, A. (2008a). Easy comes, easy goes? The link between learning and remembering and its exploitation in metacognition. Memory & Cognition, 36, 416–428. https://doi.org/10.3758/MC.36.2.416
Koriat, A. (2008b). Subjective confidence in one’s answers: The consensuality principle. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 34, 945–959. https://doi.org/10.1037/0278-73220.127.116.115
In text Eamples:
(Koriat, 2008a) and (Koriat, 2008b)
NOTE: Figures mean graphs, photos, illustrations, screenshots, etc. (e.g. not a Table)
Number figures consecutively throughout your paper.
Double-space the caption that appears under a figure.
When you use a figure in your paper that has been adapted or copied directly from another source, you need to reference the original source. This reference appears as a caption underneath the figure that you copied or adapted for your paper.
If an image, figure or table is reproduced from another source for a published work, permission must be sought from the copyright holder and this information must be included in the caption; it is not enough just to cite the source. For example: Copyright 2014 by the ABC Company. Reprinted with permission.
Sources for tables must be listed in your reference list. Sources for images or figures are not required in your reference list.
Caption under Figure
Figure X. Descriptive phrase that serves as title and description. Reprinted [or adapted] from Title of Website, by Author First Initial. Second Initial. Surname, Year, URL. Copyright [year] by the Name of Copyright Holder. Reprinted [or adapted] with permission.
In text citation format
Table X would indicate that...
Title above table
Table X (Add title or description of table)
Caption below table format
Note. Adapted/Retrieved/Reprinted from Source website. Copyright (Year) by the Name of Copyright Holder. Reprinted [or adapted] with permission.
Reference list format
Personal or Corporate Author. (Last update or copyright date; if not known, put n.d.). Title of specific document. URL of specific document
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